The wine region Moravia is located in the South East corner of Czech Republic and lies underneath the Czech Republic’s second largest city Brno. Almost 96% of all registered vineyards in the whole country lie here in Moravia. The yearly average temperature is 9.4 °C, yearly average rainfall is 510 mm and yearly average sunshine is 2,244 hours. This data was measured over the period of the last 78 years.
The climate is temporary, leaning towards inland type, with an occasional damp air from the Atlantic or even ice air from the inland. The summer temperatures are more intense most of the years having a positive influence on shorter vegetative period compared to the Western Europe. This enables cultivation of vine types with a late grape seasoning, types that make a top quality wines. The grape ripening in Moravia is slower. That is why the grapes can hold higher amount and variety of aromatic substances.
The Moravian wine region is divided into four wine subregions:
- Mikulov (4,432 hectares)
- Moravian Slovakia (4,188 hectares)
- Great Pavlovice (4,741 hectares)
- Znojmo (3,153 hectares)
Moravia has also got 312 viticulture villages, 1,126 wine trails and 18,874 wine producers.
Wine subregion Znojmo
Znojmo wine subregion lies in the shadow of Bohemian-Moravian highlands. The rocky soils give nurture to Riesling and Green Veltliner. One of the villages specialises in the black grape type of Blaufränkisch.
The town Znojmo has always been a dominant viticulture centre. Living proof of this statement is a complex underground system right underneath the town.
There are first-class vineyard positions around Znojmo, with gravel at the bottom and loess with clay on top.
Wine types in the Znojmo subregion
Typical Znojmo wines are aromatic whites. Apart from Green Veltiner (which is the main type) the other grape types doing well here are: Müller Thurgau, Sauvignon Blanc, Riesling and Palava.
Top quality is also achieved with Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris and Pinot Noir.
Wine subregion Mikulov
Mikulov wine subregion is one of the foyers of viticulture of Czech Republic. The town Mikulov itself creates its natural centre. The excellent positions of vineyards can be found around this town and also in other villages and towns in the area.
Dominating feature of the wine subregion Mikulov is lime stone cliff massif at the Pavlovsky Hills and can be seen from a far distance. There are limey clays and sands at the hill-side and surroundings.
This subregion is a popular tourist destination. First main attraction is Palava – protected landscape area. UNESCO has included it on its list of Biosphere Reserves. The second top visited site is Lednice-Valtice complex, which has been on the UNESCO world heritage list since 1996.
Another very important place is the town Valtice, where you can visit a wine tasting exhibition in the Valtice Chateau cellars. This exhibition is called the National Wine Salon and is open all year round. The oldest viticulture school of Czech Republic can also be found here in this very town.
Wine types in the Mikulov subregion
Welschriesling (unrelated to the Riesling) ripens in the lime soil of Palava landscape area. It has a distinctive mineral character.
Pinot Blanc and Chardonnay grapes are doing very well in this area.
The brilliant Green Veltliner matures in the more earthy soil of the Danube hills.
Other grape types thriving in this subregion: Müller-Thurgau, Neuburger, Green Sylvaner, Riesling, Traminer and Palava.
Wine subregion Great Pavlovice
In the centre of the Great Pavlovice subregion are stained clay, calcareous clay, lime stone and pudding stone soils. It is home to mainly black grapevine types grown in areas that are rich in magnesium. It is the heartland of red wine production in Moravia.
The grapevine in the north grows in sandy soil and types that do well here are Green Veltiner, Pinot Gris and mainly aromatic wines like Gewurztraminer, Palava, Moravian Muscat and Müller Thurgau.
The main centreline of wine trails in this subregions goes parallel with the motorway from Brno to Břeclav. There are hills on the right side of this line with some great conditions for Burgundy type vines. Slopes on the left face warm southern winds that speed up the grape ripening process in autumn.
Wine types in the Great Pavlovice subregion
White wines: Green Veltiner, Pinot Gris, Welschriesling, Müller Thurgau, Palava, Moravian Muscat.
Red wines: Blauer Portugieser.
Wine subregion Moravian Slovakia
Moravian Slovakia lies in the south east Moravia and has varied natural conditions. Most of its viticulture villages are close to the river Morava with north-easterly winds. The light soil and low sea level result in temperature intensity in the summer and give distinctive vine type character.
The vines benefiting from this position are Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, and the following red wines: Blaufränkisch, Zweigelt and newly cultivated Cabernet Moravia.
There is rugged hilly terrain in the north of Moravian Slovakia where the influence of southern winds weakens. That is why the wines produced here are full bodied but fresh.
Grapevines thriving in this area are Riesling, Pinot Blanc, Moravian Muscat and Müller Thurgau.
The east of Slovakian Moravia subregion lies on the foothills of the White Carpathian Mountains. As opposed to other Moravian wine subregions, a lot of vineyards here grow on heavy soils formed from original clays. These soils hold moisture well and grapevines can draw nutrition even in the dry spells. This gives the wines full bodied taste. Conditions like these suit the Burgundy type vines and Green Sylvaner.
Areas with very heavy ground absorbing more heat give a birth to brilliant Riesling and ‘Blatnický Roháč’ that can only be found in this little village and is developed from combination of Riesling, Pinot Blanc and Green Sylvaner.
The gem of this locality is Plže – protected area of an interesting wine cellar buildings.
Wine types in the Moravian Slovakia subregion
White wines: Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Riesling, Müller Thurgau, Green Sylvaner.
Red wines: Blaufränkisch, Zweigelt, Cabernet Moravia.